Name: 
 

ES21: Astronomy of the Solar System   EXAM 2



True/False
Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false.
 

 1. 

Solar prominences have twisted and looped shapes because of the solar magnetic field.
 

 2. 

The moon stopped evolving because it is too small to have kept its internal heat.
 

 3. 

On the moon, the maria are younger than the highlands.
 

 4. 

Granulation is caused by rising currents of hot gas below the photosphere.
 

 5. 

Oxygen in Earth's atmosphere is outgassed in volcanic eruptions.
 

 6. 

The corona is heated by the solar magnetic field.
 

 7. 

Flow channels on Venus suggest it was once rich in water.
 

 8. 

Earth never passed through the cratering stage in planetary development.
 

 9. 

Outgassing produces gas rich in carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water vapor.
 

 10. 

Valles Marineris is a long valley on Mars believed to resemble the rift valleys of eastern Africa.
 

 11. 

We know Mercury must have a large metal core because it has a high density.
 

Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 12. 

The flow patterns found on the surface of Mars suggest
a.
that Mars is a water-rich world.
b.
that the polar caps are made of water.
c.
that volcanism is occurring on Mars.
d.
that the climate on Mars was different in the past.
e.
all of the above
 

 13. 

The surface temperature of Mercury is
a.
about equal to that on the bright side of the moon.
b.
about the same on the day and night sides of the planet.
c.
about equal to that of Earth's deserts.
d.
nearly equal to the surface temperature of the sun.
e.
none of the above
 

 14. 

The diagram below shows a plot of the temperature of the sun as a function of distance above the bottom of the photosphere. At what distance above the bottom of the photosphere does the temperature of the sun change the most rapidly with distance?

ss_exam_2_web_files/i0160000.jpg
a.
1,000 km
b.
2,300 km
c.
2,500 km to 4,000 km
d.
500 km
e.
a and c
 

 15. 

Slow surface evolution is caused by
a.
wind erosion.
b.
plate tectonics.
c.
cratering.
d.
all of the above
e.
a and b
 

 16. 

In the development of a planet, the stage of _______________ occurred when molten rock flowed through fissures and filled deep basins with molten rock.
a.
glaciation
b.
accretion
c.
flooding
d.
cratering
e.
differentiation
 

 17. 

Most of the light we see coming from the sun originates in the
a.
corona.
b.
magnetic field.
c.
photosphere.
d.
sunspots.
e.
chromosphere.
 

 18. 

In some regions of the corona, the magnetic field does not loop back to the sun, and the gas escapes unimpeded. These regions are called _______________ and are believed to be the source of the solar wind.
a.
auroras
b.
granules
c.
flares
d.
coronal holes
e.
prominences
 

 19. 

Earth possesses few visible craters and the moon possesses many. This is because
a.
Earth formed later than the moon and, therefore, hasn't encountered as many meteorites.
b.
the moon doesn't have an atmosphere that could burn up many of the meteorites before impacting.
c.
erosion and plate tectonics have slowly removed evidence of past cratering on earth.
d.
all of the above
e.
only b and c
 

 20. 

The extreme size of volcanoes on Mars indicate that
a.
Mars has a much thicker crust than Earth.
b.
water once flowed in streams on Mars.
c.
large moving plates have not formed on Mars.
d.
a and c
e.
a, b, and c
 

 21. 

Granulation is caused by
a.
rising gas below the photosphere.
b.
shock waves in the corona.
c.
sunspots.
d.
the heating in the chromosphere.
e.
the solar wind flowing away from the corona.
 

 22. 

The sunspot cycle affects

I.
the latitude at which sunspots are visible at a given time.
II.
the number of sunspots that are visible at a given time.
III.
the rotation rate of the sun's equator at a given time.
IV.
the magnetic polarity of the sunspots at a given time.
a.
I, II, & IV
b.
I & II
c.
I, II & III
d.
II & III
e.
I & IV
 

 23. 

The graph below plots the escape velocity of each planet along the vertical axis and its surface temperature along the horizontal. The lines plotted in the figure are the average speeds of gas particles as a function of temperature for various gases. Which planet plotted in this diagram has the greatest escape velocity?

ss_exam_2_web_files/i0250000.jpg
a.
Venus
b.
Mercury
c.
Mars
d.
Earth
e.
Moon
 

 24. 

The most recent sunspot maximum occurred in 2001, when is the next sunspot maximum expected if the solar cycle continues?
a.
The last cycle started a Maunder minimum, and the next maximum can not be predicted.
b.
2012
c.
2006
d.
2023
e.
1990
 

 25. 

The moon is no longer geologically active because
a.
it is rotating too slowly.
b.
its crust is too thin.
c.
it is too small.
d.
its radioactive elements were never abundant.
e.
it does not have water on its surface.
 

 26. 

The time it takes Mercury to complete a solar day (the time from sunrise to sunrise)
a.
is about one earth day.
b.
is about one earth year.
c.
is equal to two revolutions of Mercury around the sun.
d.
depends on the season of the year.
e.
is equal to one revolution of Mercury around the sun.
 

 27. 

The United States consumes 2.5ss_exam_2_web_files/i0290000.jpg1019 J of energy each year. A typical solar flare releases 5.0ss_exam_2_web_files/i0290001.jpg1024 J of energy. How many years could we run the United States on the energy released by this solar flare if all of the released energy could be used?
a.
5ss_exam_2_web_files/i0290002.jpg10-6 years
b.
about 12 years
c.
200,000 years
d.
1.25ss_exam_2_web_files/i0290003.jpg1044 years
e.
500 years
 

 28. 

The lunar maria are
a.
the lava plains of the lunar lowlands.
b.
less than one billion years old.
c.
older than the lunar highlands.
d.
the smooth plateaus of the lunar highlands
e.
moving plates of lunar crust.
 

 29. 

That Mercury has a large iron core is evidenced by
a.
the large lobate scarps.
b.
the large mean density of Mercury.
c.
the lava flows near Caloris Basin.
d.
all of the above
e.
none of the above
 

 30. 

Caloris Basin on Mercury is believed to be
a.
a network of lobate scarps.
b.
a dry sea floor.
c.
a sinuous rille.
d.
an impact basin filled with lava flows.
e.
jumbled terrain.
 

 31. 

The corona of the sun can be observed
a.
during a lunar eclipse.
b.
with a coronagraph.
c.
using filtergrams.
d.
a and b above
e.
with none of the above
 

 32. 

Coronae on Venus are believed to be
a.
the result of plate tectonics.
b.
impact craters.
c.
caused by rising convection currents in the interior of Venus.
d.
located only in the polar regions of Venus.
e.
much older than the highlands such as Ishtar Terra.
 

 33. 

The surface of Mercury is difficult to map from Earth because
a.
it is hidden beneath thick clouds.
b.
it is never closer than 8 AU to Earth.
c.
it is always near the sun.
d.
all of the above
e.
none of the above.
 

 34. 

Which solar system object listed below is most similar to Earth in terms of mass and density?
a.
Mars
b.
Venus
c.
Moon
d.
Mercury
e.
Deimos
 

 35. 

Slow surface evolution on Mercury is due to
a.
micrometeorite impacts.
b.
intense cycles of high and low temperature that weakens the surface rocks.
c.
plate tectonics
d.
all of the above
e.
a and b
 

 36. 

The theory that Mercury shrank slightly when it was young has been proposed to explain Mercury's
a.
extended lava plains.
b.
lobate scarps.
c.
magnetic field.
d.
large craters.
e.
regolith.
 

 37. 

The moon's highlands
a.
are older than the maria.
b.
were formed as the result of a large meteorite impact on the opposite side of the moon.
c.
contain relatively few craters compared to the lowlands.
d.
contain a large number of sinuous rilles
e.
contain large amounts of sedimentary rock.
 

 38. 

The geology of Venus appears to be dominated by
a.
volcanism.
b.
erosion by flowing water.
c.
impact cratering.
d.
strip mining.
e.
plate tectonics.
 

 39. 

The moon's distance from Earth is measured very accurately by bouncing a laser beam off of a small mirror left on the surface of the moon. If a laser is fired at the moon and the signal returns in 2.6 seconds, what is the distance to the moon?
a.
780,000 km
b.
390,000 m
c.
390,000 km
d.
780,000 m
e.
1,600,000 m
 

Completion
Complete each sentence or statement.
 
 
The following question(s) cover basic properties information on the terrestrial planets and are not limited to Venus and Mars.
 

 40. 

Besides Earth, which of the terrestrial planets and/or satellites of terrestrial planets show(s) evidence for the possible existence of liquid water flowing on its surface in the past? _______________
 

 

 41. 

The terrestrial planet with the oldest surface is _______________.
 

 

 42. 

The largest satellite orbiting a terrestrial planet is _______________.
 

 

 43. 

The terrestrial planet with the most moons is _______________.
 

 

 44. 

_______________ formed as Mercury cooled and shrank.
 

 

 45. 

Most of the light we see coming from the sun originates in the _______________.
 

 

 46. 

_______________ are great lava flows covering 17% of the lunar surface.
 

 

 47. 

In the diagram below label each of the major divisions of Earth's interior.

ss_exam_2_web_files/i0510000.jpg
 

 

 48. 

_______________ basin is the largest known impact crater on Mercury.
 

 



 
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