Name:    SS EXAM 1 web

Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

1.

How many centimeters are there in one kilometer
 a. 100 b. 1000 c. 10,000 d. 100,000 e. 1 106

2.

The average distance from Earth to the sun is
 a. 1 ly b. 1 million km c. 1 million miles d. 1 billion km e. 1 AU

3.

The Milky Way Galaxy
 a. contains about 100 billion stars. b. is about 100 light-years in diameter. c. is the largest known object in the universe. d. a., b., and c. are correct e. Only a. and c. are correct.

4.

2.9 107 is the same as
 a. 2.9 thousand. b. 29 thousand. c. 290 thousand. d. 2.9 million. e. 29 million.

5.

64,200,000,000 is equal to
 a. 6.42 107. b. 6.42 10-7. c. 6.42 1010. d. 6.42 10-10. e. 1.0 1064.2.

6.

3.0 105 times 1.5 109 is equal to
 a. 4.5 1045. b. 4.5 1014. c. 2.0 104. d. 2.0 1014. e. 2.0 1045.

7.

4.4 106 divided by 8.8 1010 is equal to
 a. 5.0 10-5. b. 5.0 10-4. c. 5.0 104. d. 3.9 1017. e. 3.9 1016.

8.

If light takes 8 minutes to reach Earth from the sun and 5.3 hours to reach Pluto, what is the approximate distance from the sun to Pluto?
 a. 5.3 AU b. 40 AU c. 40 ly d. 5.3 ly e. 0.6 ly

9.

Seen from the northern latitudes, the star Polaris
 a. is never above the horizon during the day. b. always sets directly in the west. c. is always above the northern horizon. d. is never visible during the winter. e. is the brightest star in the sky.

10.

An observer on Earth's equator would find
 a. Polaris directly overhead. b. Polaris 40° above the northern horizon. c. that the celestial equator coincides with the horizon. d. the celestial equator passing directly overhead. e. that the ecliptic coincides with the horizon.

11.

The celestial equator is
 a. a line around the sky directly above Earth's equator. b. the dividing line between the north and south celestial hemispheres. c. the path that the sun appears to follow on the celestial sphere as Earth orbits the sun. d. a and b. e. a and c.

12.

The _______________ is the point on the celestial sphere directly above any observer.
 a. north celestial pole b. south celestial pole c. zenith d. celestial equator e. asterism

13.

An observer in the Northern Hemisphere watches the sky for several hours. Due to the motion of Earth, this observer notices that the stars near the north celestial pole appear to move
 a. counter clockwise. b. clockwise. c. from left to right. d. from right to left. e. nearly vertically upward.

14.

You live at a latitude of 39° S. What is the angle between the southern horizon and the south celestial pole?
 a. 45° b. 23.5° c. 39° d. 51° e. The answer depends on the day of the year.

15.

You live at a latitude of 28° N. What is the angle between the northern horizon and the north celestial pole?
 a. 62° b. 28° c. 40° d. 231/2° e. 5°

16.

If the north celestial pole appears on your horizon, what is your latitude?
 a. 90° N b. 90° S c. 0° d. 45° N e. The latitude of the observer cannot be determined from the information given.

17.

Which of the following people did not accept a heliocentric model for the universe?
 a. Kepler b. Copernicus c. Tycho d. Galileo e. Aristarchus

18.

Ptolemy's model of the universe
 a. was heliocentric. b. included elliptical orbits. c. contained epicycles. d. all of the above e. none of the above

19.

The Copernican system was no more accurate than the Ptolemaic system in predicting the positions of the planets because
 a. the Copernican system used the old value for the radius of Earth. b. Copernicus had been unable to detect parallax. c. the Copernican system included uniform circular motion. d. in the Copernican system only Mercury and Venus orbit the sun, all other planets orbited Earth. e. Copernicus used inaccurate data from Ptolemy's system.

20.

Galileo's observations of the gibbous phase of Venus proved
 a. that Venus orbited the sun. b. that Earth orbited the sun. c. that all of the planets orbited the sun. d. that the moon orbited Earth. e. that Venus had an atmosphere.

21.

Galileo's telescopic discovery of moons orbiting Jupiter was important because it showed that
 a. the universe could contain centers of motion other than Earth. b. Earth might move along an orbit and not leave the moon behind. c. Jupiter was much more massive than Earth. d. all of the above e. a and b above

22.

Tycho Brahe's greatest contribution to astronomy was
 a. his model of the universe. b. his telescopic observations. c. his discovery of three laws of motion. d. his years of careful observations of the planets. e. a and b above

23.

Saturn is on average 10 AU from the sun. What is the approximate orbital period of Saturn?
 a. 10 years b. 32 years c. 100 years d. 1000 years e. 1,000,000 years

24.

Galileo found that
 a. falling objects fall at a constant speed. b. heavy and light objects fall at the same rate. c. heavy objects fall faster than lighter objects. d. the moon's orbit is elliptical. e. only objects made of earth and water fell to the ground.

25.

The _______________ of an object is a measure of the amount of matter it contains. On the other hand _______________ is a measure of the gravitational force on an object.
 a. weight; mass b. mass; weight c. energy; force d. force; energy e. momentum; energy

Completion
Complete each sentence or statement.

26.

The average distance from Earth to the sun is one _______________.

27.

Light takes about 8 minutes to travel from the sun to Earth and about 40 minutes to travel from the sun to Jupiter. Jupiter is about _______________ AU from the sun

28.

The number 52,600,000,000 would be written in scientific notation as _______________.

29.

The _______________ is the point on the celestial sphere directly above an observer, regardless of where the observer is located on Earth.

30.

Which planets are never visible near the eastern horizon at sunset?

31.

_______________ is the point in Earth's orbit when Earth is closest to the sun.

32.

Uranus' orbital period is 84 years, how far is Uranus from the sun?

33.

The _______________ of the moon's orbit is the place where it is farthest from Earth.

34.

What is the speed of light in meters per second?

35.

A ball is dropped from the top of a science building. What is the speed of the ball after falling for three seconds?

True/False
Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false.

36.

The average distance from Earth to the sun is 1 AU.

37.

The nearest star is 1 ly from the solar system.

38.

A light-year is the distance light travels in one year.

39.

A kilometer contains 1 million meters.

40.

The sun is a star in the Milky Way Galaxy.

41.

The metric system is a decimal system.

42.

The moon and visible planets are always within a few degrees of the ecliptic.

43.

Precession of Earth's axis causes the date at which perihelion of Earth's orbit occurs to slowly change.

44.

Polaris has always been the star nearest the north celestial pole.

45.

The celestial equator always passes directly overhead.

46.

The celestial equator always crosses the horizon at the east point and west point.

47.

Copernicus was the first to propose that Earth moved around the sun.

48.

Parallax is the apparent change in location of an object due to the motion of the observer.

49.

Galileo used a telescope to observe the phases of Jupiter.

50.

If a planet orbits the sun at a distance of 4 AU, then its orbital period is 8 years.