True/False [Each question
is worth 1 point]
Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false.


1.

Copernicus was one of the
first to propose that Earth moved around the sun.


2.

The apparent positions of
stars around the sun during an eclipse have been used to prove the general theory of
relativity.


3.

A kilometer contains 1
million meters.


4.

Changing the direction of a
moving body does not change its velocity.


5.

The Copernican model of the
solar system has the planets orbit the sun along elliptical paths.


6.

Galileo used a telescope to
observe the phases of Jupiter.


7.

Galileo developed three
theories of motion that became laws of motion when Newton proved Galileo's theories
correct.


8.

The Ptolemaic model of the
universe was heliocentric.

Numeric Response [Each
question is worth 1 point]


9.

Suppose Einstein is moving
past you at a speed of 0.9c. While 1 hour passes for you, how much time passes for Einstein?
[Note, you are stationary with respect to Albert].


10.

A cricket ball has a rest
mass of 1 kg. Eisntein throws the cricket ball at you at a speed of .9999c. What is the mass of the
cricket ball at that speed? [Note, you are stationary with respect to Albert].


11.

You see Einstein moving away
from you at 0.9c. He turns on a lamp that is pointing back toward you. How fast do you measure the
light from the lamp to be moving? [Note, you are stationary with respect to Albert].


12.

Suppose Einstein is moving
past you at a speed of 0.99c. Because his spaceship is the same model as yours, you know that it is
100 meters long when it is at rest. How long is his spaceship as it moves by you? [Note, you
are stationary with respect to Albert].

Multiple
Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the
question.


13.

According to the theory of
general relativity, gravity is caused by a.  the equivalence
principle.  b.  the change in mass of a moving body.  c.  the constant speed of light.  d.  the curvature of spacetime.  e.  none of the above   


14.

Ptolemy's model of the
universe a.  was heliocentric.  b.  contained epicycles.  c.  included elliptical
orbits.  d.  all of the above  e.  none of the above   


15.

Which of the following was
not included in Copernicus’s Heliocentric Model a.  Inferior planet orbits are larger  b.  Earth orbits like any other planet  c.  The Sun is at the center  d.  Retrograde motion occurs when we
“lap” Mars and other superior planets   


16.

Which of the following
people did not accept a heliocentric model for the universe? a.  Galileo  b.  Copernicus  c.  Tycho  d.  Newton  e.  Kepler   


17.

The book "De
Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium" a.  is a dialog written to convince the
general public of the merits of the Copernican theory.  b.  first described the Copernican theory.  c.  describes the Tychonian theory.  d.  describes how Galileo's observations and Kepler's calculations proved the Copernican
theory.  e.  describes the construction of Galileo's telescope and his
observations.   


18.

Galileo found
that a.  only objects made of earth and water fell to the ground.  b.  heavy and light objects fall at the same rate.  c.  heavy objects fall faster than lighter objects.  d.  the moon's orbit is elliptical.  e.  falling objects fall at a constant speed.   


19.

4.410^{6} divided by 8.810^{10} is equal to a.  3.910^{17}.  b.  5.010^{4}.  c.  3.910^{16}.  d.  5.010^{5}.  e.  5.010^{4}.   


20.

The equivalence principle
can be illustrated by a.  the change in mass of a moving
body.  b.  the formation of energy by nuclear fusion.  c.  a space capsule coasting through space at constant velocity.  d.  a person riding in an elevator.  e.  the increase in the speed of light from a star as the light moves past the sun during
a solar eclipse.   


21.

If the nearest star is 4.2
lightyears away, then a.  the star must be very
young.  b.  the star must have formed 4.2 billion years
ago.  c.  the light we see left the star 4.2 years
ago.  d.  the star must be very old.  e.  the star is 4.2 million AU away.   


22.

The second postulate of
special relativity states that a.  the laws of physics are the same for
all observers, no matter what their motion, as long as they are not
accelerating.  b.  the speed of light is constant and will
be the same for all observers independent of their motion relative to the light
source.  c.  observers cannot detect their uniform motion except relative to other
objects.  d.  observers cannot distinguish locally between inertial forces due to
acceleration and uniform gravitational forces due to the presence of a massive
body.  e.  the acceleration of an object is proportional to the applied force and
inversely proportional to its mass.   


23.

The Copernican system was no
more accurate than the Ptolemaic system in predicting the positions of the planets
because a.  Copernicus used inaccurate data from Ptolemy's
system.  b.  the Copernican system used the old value for the radius of
Earth.  c.  in the Copernican system only Mercury and Venus orbit the sun, all
other planets orbited Earth.  d.  the Copernican system included uniform
circular motion.  e.  Copernicus had been unable to detect
parallax.   


24.

Galileo's telescopic
discovery of moons orbiting Jupiter was important because it showed that a.  the universe could contain centers of motion other than
Earth.  b.  Earth might move along an orbit and not leave the moon
behind.  c.  Jupiter was much more massive than Earth.  d.  all of the above  e.  a and b above   


25.

3.010^{5} times 1.510^{9}
is equal to a.  2.010^{45}.  b.  4.510^{45}.  c.  2.010^{14}.  d.  2.010^{4}.  e.  4.510^{14}.   


26.

If light takes 8 minutes to
reach Earth from the sun and 5.3 hours to reach Pluto, what is the approximate distance from the sun
to Pluto? a.  5.3 AU  b.  40 ly  c.  40 AU  d.  5.3 ly  e.  0.6 ly   


27.

Galileo's observations of
the gibbous phase of Venus proved a.  that all of the planets orbited the
sun.  b.  that Venus orbited the sun.  c.  that the moon orbited Earth.  d.  that Earth orbited the sun.  e.  that Venus had an
atmosphere.   


28.

Due to the curvature of
spacetime by the sun, light from stars that passes near the edge of the sun will a.  be focused so that the stars appear brighter than if spacetime was not
curved.  b.  be bent so that the stars are no longer
visible.  c.  be bent so that the stars appear further from the edge of the sun than
if spacetime was not curved.  d.  not be affected by the curvature of
spacetime.  e.  be bent so that the stars appear closer to the edge of the sun than if
spacetime was not curved.   


29.

Galileo's telescopic
discoveries of mountains on the moon and spots on the sun were controversial because they suggested
that the sun and moon a.  were not
perfect.  b.  orbited each other.  c.  were inhabited.  d.  did not orbit
Earth.  e.  were the same kind of object.   


30.

Tycho Brahe's greatest
contribution to astronomy was a.  his model of the
universe.  b.  his telescopic observations.  c.  his discovery of three laws of motion.  d.  his years of careful observations of the planets.  e.  a and b above   


31.

One of the first tests of
the general theory of relativity was a.  the demonstration of a hammer and a
feather falling at the same rate on the moon.  b.  the determination of the speed of light to be constant.  c.  the determination of the rate of advance of the perihelion of Mercury's
orbit.  d.  the description of the orbit of the moon.  e.  the change in mass of a particle moving at a high speed.   


32.

If the light takes 8 minutes
to reach Earth from the sun and the nearest star is 4.7 ly from the sun, what is the distance from
the sun to the nearest star in astronomical units? a.  1.510^{11} AU  b.  1.7 AU  c.  310,000 AU  d.  214 AU  e.  37.6 AU   

Calculation


33.

Answer the following questions, giving as much detail as possible. Remember to show
all the work necessary to arrive at the correct solution. Partial credit will be given as applicable.
Note: be sure to label your answer with the correct units. (5
points).
a ) Use the following data to determine
the force of gravity the Moon exerts on the Earth.
b) What is the force of gravity that the Earth exerts on the
Moon?


34.

Match each of the scientists in the left column with the short description in the
right column:
i.
Kepler______ a) his observations supported the heliocentric
theory and showed that Aristotle and
Ptolemy
didn’t know everything
ii.
Galileo______ b) developed the original form of the modern
heliocentric
theory
iii.
Newton_____ c) provided the data that lead to the
development of the laws of planetary motion
iv.
Copernicus__ d) worked out laws of gravity and
motion
v.
Brahe______ e) studied earlier observations and discovered
three laws of planetary motion

Complete each sentence or
statement. [Each question is worth 1 point]


35.

The _______________ states
that an observer cannot distinguish locally the difference between inertial forces due to
acceleration and uniform gravitational forces due to the presence of a massive object.


36.

What is the speed of light
in meters per second?


37.

The first observations of
objects in the solar system that orbited neither the sun nor Earth were made by
_______________.


38.

Light takes about 8 minutes
to travel from the sun to Earth and about 40 minutes to travel from the sun to Jupiter. Jupiter is
about _______________ AU from the sun


39.

The _______________ of a
particle is the mass we would measure if the particle were not moving.


40.

A ball is dropped from the
top of a science building. What is the speed of the ball after falling for three
seconds?


41.

The number 52,600,000,000
would be written in scientific notation as _______________.


42.

“All natural motion is
circular” was an idea first put forward by_____________.
